Below is the best essay to date I’ve found on this fascinating topic:

Lloyd Bailey, “Biblical Math as Heilgeschichte?” in Richard D. Weis and David M. Carr, eds., A Gift of God in Due Season: Essays on Scripture and Community in Honor of James A. Sanders (vol. 225; Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996. (The German Heilgeschichte means “salvation history”)

Bailey Biblical Math As Heilsgeschichte