This page is a minimalist listing of books Dr. Heiser recommends on various subjects. Since Dr. Heiser is active in trying to inject sound thinking into fringe topics and pseudo-history via his Peeranormal podcast and FringePop321 YouTube channel, this list includes fringe topics. Inclusion does not mean wholesale endorsement of the contents of any item except his his own work.

With respect to his own research, the bibliography for items covered in Dr. Heiser’s book, The Unseen Realm, is voluminous. Dr. Heiser’s personal bibliography for that research is currently at 6,200 entries. Aside from bibliographic items in The Unseen Realm, readers are directed to the companion website for the book. A few entries from that site are found below and, as such, are regard as the best resources for certain topics. Most articles listed below are free PDF files. Books lead to Purchasing books through links provided here helps support Dr. Heiser’s non-profit, Miqlat.



Books and articles by Dr. Heiser

Michael S. Heiser, The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible (Lexham Press, 2015)

Michael S. Heiser, Supernatural: What the Bible Teaches About the Unseen World – and Why It Matters (Kirkdale, 2015)

Michael S. Heiser, The 60 Second Scholar: 100 Maxims for Mastering Bible Study (CAM Publishing, 2016)

Michael S. Heiser, The 60 Second Scholar: 100 Insights That Illumine the Bible (CAM Publishing, 2016)

Michael S. Heiser, The 60 Second Scholar: 100 Observations on Bible Doctrine (CAM Publishing, 2016)

Michael S. Heiser, “Does Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible Demonstrate an Evolution from Polytheism to Monotheism in Israelite Religion?Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament 1:1 (2012): 1-24

Michael S. Heiser, “Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? Toward an Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew BibleBulletin of Biblical Research 18:1 (2008): 1-30

Michael S. Heiser, “You’ve Seen One Elohim, You’ve Seen Them All? A Critique of Mormonism’s Use of Psalm 82Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies Review 19:1 (2007): 221-266

  • This is Dr. Heiser’s article, published in a Mormon journal, critiquing Mormonism’s understanding of Psalm 82 and the divine council.

Michael S. Heiser, “Are Yahweh and El Distinct Deities in Deut. 32:8-9 and Psalm 82?HIPHIL 3 (2006); online journal

Michael S. Heiser, “The Divine Council in Late Canonical and Non-Canonical Second Temple Jewish Literature,” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004

Michael S. Heiser, “Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God,” Bibliotheca Sacra 158 (Jan-March, 2001): 52-74

Michael S. Heiser, “Monotheism and the Language of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Tyndale Bulletin 65:1 (2014): 85-100


Reference Works

One-volume Bible Dictionaries 

(Nelson): Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary: An Authoritative One-Volume Reference Work on the Bible, With Full-Color Illustrations

(Moody): The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary

(InterVarsity): New Bible Dictionary

(Lexham Press): Lexham Bible Dictionary (this is a digital resource that is available for free)

(Baker): Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Baker Reference Library)

Other specialized one-volume dictionaries:

Dictionary of Biblical Imagery

Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Second Edition (note: This resource is the work of critical scholars, not evangelicals. Consequently, if you’re not familiar with critical methods and thinking, you may not be ready for it. That said, it is the best work of its kind and much of its content can be found only in high-end monographs and scholarly journals.)

Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics

The Best Multi-Volume Dictionaries

The InterVarsity Press Dictionary Set (8 volumes – four OT, four NT). This is currently the best, most up-to-date set. It is available as a set or by individual volumes. All of these volumes are available in digital form through Logos Bible Software as well as hard copy.

Old Testament Volumes:

Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry & Writings (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Dictionary of the Old Testament: Prophets (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

New Testament Volumes:

Dictionary of New Testament Background: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (IVP Bible Dictionary)

Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)


Genesis 6, 1 Enoch, Reception of 1 Enoch in the Early Church

Amar Annus, “On the Origin of the Watchers: A Comparative Study of the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions,” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 19.4 (2010): 277–320

  • This is the most important article to date on Gen 6:1-4. It supersedes all work done on the Mesopotamian backdrop — work which frankly pales in comparison to the data that Annus brings to bear on the passage. Annus shows with great clarity how the Mesopotamian apkallu traditions are the backdrop to Gen. 6:1-4 (and, therefore, the supernatural backdrop against which it was written and must be understood), along with how Second Temple Jewish writers comprehended the Mesopotamian backdrop. Subsequent Christian tradition (i.e., the church fathers) knew nothing of this backdrop, and so early church interpretations that produced the Sethite view violated the text’s original context. In short, any non-supernaturalist interpretation of Gen 6:1-4 is inconsistent with the original Mesopotamian context that is the focus of the passage’s polemic.

James C. VanderKam, “1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature,” in The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity; ed. James C. VanderKam and William Adler; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996), 33–101

Archie T. Wright, The Origin of Evil Spirits: The Reception of Genesis 6:1-4 in Early Jewish Literature, Revised Edition (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 198, second series; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013)

Annette Yoshiko Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

James C. Vanderkam and George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch: The Hermeneia Translation (Fortress Press, 2012)

  • This is the most recent, textually up-to-date, scholarly translation of 1 Enoch. It is taken from the scholarly commentary series below.

George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch, v.1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1-36, 81-108 (Hermeneia: A Critical & Historical Commentary on the Bible)

George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch v. 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 37-82 (Hermeneia: a Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible)

Harkins and Coblentz-Bautch, The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions

Ancient Language Grammars

Mark Futato, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Eisenbrauns); MEMRA textbook

Robert Holmstedt and John Cook, Beginning Biblical Hebrew: A Grammar and Illustrated Reader (Baker)

Miles Van Pelt, Basics of Biblical Aramaic: Complete Grammar, Lexicon, and Annotated Text (Zondervan); MEMRA textbook

Alger Johns, A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (Andrews University Monographs) (Andrews University)

James Jumper, A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic: An Annotated Answer Key to Alger Johns’s (Andrews University)

Randall Garr, Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 BCE

  • This book covers Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Epigraphic Hebrew, Old Aramaic in abbreviated form. It requires a good knowledge of ancient Hebrew to use it.

Michael Williams, Basics of Ancient Ugaritic: A Concise Grammar, Workbook, and Lexicon (Zondervan); MEMRA textbook

John Huehnergard, An Introduction to Ugaritic (Hendrickson)

Pierre Bordreuil and Dennis Pardee, A Manual of Ugaritic (Eisenbrauns)

James Allen, Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs (Cambridge); MEMRA textbook

James Hoch, Middle Egyptian Grammar (SSEA Publications) (Toronto)

Mark Collier, How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Step-by-Step Guide to Teach Yourself (Univ California Press)

John Huehnergard, A Grammar of Akkadian, 3rd ed. (Harvard Semitic) (Eisenbrauns)

John Huehnergard, Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Harvard Semitic studies) (Eisenbrauns)

  • This answer key to Huehnergard’s grammar is for the second edition. You need to inquire of the publisher whether it is adequate for the third edition.

Martin Worthington, Complete Babylonian (Teach Yourself) (McGraw-Hill)

Miller and Shipp, An Akkadian Handbook: Helps, Paradigms, Glossary, Logograms, and Sign List

Daniel Foxvog, Introduction to Sumerian Grammar (Create Space; this book = notes from class taught at UC-Berkeley)

John L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts (UNDENA)

Dietz Otto Edzard, Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Brill)

William Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar (Zondervan)

David Alan Black, Learn to Read New Testament Greek, 3rd ed. (Broadman & Holman); MEMRA textbook

Sandra Gogel, A Grammar of Epigraphic Hebrew (Sbl – Resources for Biblical Study)


Word Study (Hebrew, Greek) Resources

Van Gemeren, New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis (5 volume set)

Silva, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis Set


Ancient Near Eastern Texts in English Translation

NOTE: Only the Context of Scripture set below covers all the major ancient Near Eastern literate cultures. The rest are limited to the focus of their titles.

Benjamin Foster, Before The Muses: An Anthology Of Akkadian Literature

Benjamin Foster, From Distant Days: Myths, Tales, and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia

  • an abbreviated one-volume paperback of the two-volume set, Before the Muses. Naturally, this one has less coverage.

Hallo and Younger, The Context of Scripture: Canonical Compositions, Monumental Inscriptions and Archival Documents from the Biblical World, 3 Vol Set

James B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East, Volume 1: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures

James B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East (Volume II): A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures

Nicolas Wyatt, Religious Texts from Ugarit: 2nd Edition (Biblical Seminar)

Michael Coogan, Stories from Ancient Canaan, Second Edition

Simon B. Parker, Ugaritic Narrative Poetry

John L. Foster, Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology

William Kelley Simpson, The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry; Third Edition

James Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Writings from the Ancient World)

Leprohon and Strudwick, Texts from the Pyramid Age (Writings from the Ancient World)

Vanstiphout, Epics of Sumerian Kings: The Matter of Aratta (Writings from the Ancient World)

H. Lindenberger, Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters (Writings from the Ancient World, No. 14)


Historical Jesus, Response to Jesus Mythicism

Porter, Unmasking the Pagan Christ: An Evangelical Response to the Cosmic Christ Idea

M. Bird, How God Became Jesus: The Real Origins of Belief in Jesus’ Divine Nature—A Response to Bart D. Ehrman

C. Evans, Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels

Boyd and Eddy, The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition

M. Casey, Jesus: Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths? (Biblical Studies)

Sub-category: Critiques of the use of Bayes Theorem by Jesus Mythicists (all web links):

Bayes Theorem Proves Jesus Existed (And That He Didn’t) | Strange Notions

Richard Carrier’s Deeply Flawed Argument To Show God Is Unlikely | Strange Notions

A Mathematical Review of “Proving History” by Richard Carrier | Irreducible Complexity

Does Richard Carrier Exist?

New Testament Textual Criticism, Response to Bart Ehrman

David Alan Black, New Testament Textual Criticism: A Concise Guide

Bruce Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th Edition)

Kurt Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism

J. H. Greenlee, Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism

Dan Wallace, Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament: Manuscript, Patristic, and Apocryphal Evidence (Text and Canon of the New Testament)

Philip Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism

Philip Comfort, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts

Timothy Paul Jones, Misquoting Truth: A Guide to the Fallacies of Bart Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus”

Old Testament Textual Criticism and the Septuagint (LXX)

Ellis Brotzman, Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction

E. Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible

E. Wurthwein, The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica

Brenton, The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English

Pietersma, A New English Translation of the Septuagint

      • The best current English translation of the LXX

Jobes and Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint

      • The best introduction for beginning study of the LXX

Timothy Michael Law, When God Spoke Greek: The Septuagint and the Making of the Christian Bible

Jennifer Dines, The Septuagint (Understanding the Bible and Its World)

Natalio Fernandez Marcos, The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Version of the Bible


Ancient Near Eastern Backgrounds to the Old Testament

John Walton, Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible

John Walton, The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate

John Walton, Ancient Israelite Literature in its Cultural Context

John Walton, The Lost World of Scripture: Ancient Literary Culture and Biblical Authority

John Walton, Genesis 1 as Ancient Cosmology

L. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World: A Philological and Literary Study (Analecta Biblica, No 39)

Patrick Miller, The Religion of Ancient Israel (Library of Ancient Israel)

John Walton (ed), Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Set: Old Testament

Becking (ed), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Second Edition (Revised 2nd) [Hardcover]

R. Parry, The Biblical Cosmos: A Pilgrim’s Guide to the Weird and Wonderful World of the Bible

Kenton Sparks, Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature

Jack Sasson (ed), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (4 Volumes Set)

Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions (Biblical Resource)


2nd Temple Judaism and Backgrounds to the New Testament

Craig Evans, Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies: A Guide to the Background Literature

E. Schurer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (5 volume set)

O. Skarsaune, In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity

O. Skarsaune, Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries

J. Scott, Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament

J. Fitzmyer, The Semitic Background of the New Testament (Biblical Resource Series)

Becking (ed), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Second Edition (Revised 2nd) [Hardcover]

Helyer, Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students (Christian Classics Bible Studies)

Evans (ed), Dictionary of New Testament Background (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series)

Louis Feldman, James Kugel, Lawrence Schiffman (eds,), Outside the Bible, 3-volume set: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture (expensive)

Michael Stone (ed.), Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum Ad Novum Testamentum)

Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran

Charlesworth (ed), Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls (The Anchor Bible Reference Library)

Vanderkam (ed), The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Significance For Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity

Abegg (ed), The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English

Garcia-Martinez (ed), The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English

Vanderkam, The Dead Sea Scrolls Today, rev. ed

Magness (ed), The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature)

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

James C. VanderKam, “1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature,” in The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity; ed. James C. VanderKam and William Adler; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996), 33–101

James C. Vanderkam and George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch: The Hermeneia Translation (Fortress Press, 2012)

      • This is the most recent, textually up-to-date, scholarly translation of 1 Enoch. It is taken from the scholarly commentary series below.

George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch, v.1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1-36, 81-108 (Hermeneia: A Critical & Historical Commentary on the Bible)

George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch v. 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 37-82 (Hermeneia: a Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible)

Charlesworth (ed), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ( 2 Volume set)

Charles (ed), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament: Apocrypha

Charles (ed), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Volume Two

D. de Silva, Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance

Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction

UFOs: Religion and Belief Systems

Vallee, Passport to Magonia: On UFOs, Folklore, and Parallel Worlds

Vallee, Messengers of Deception: UFO Contacts and Cults

Colavito, Faking History: Essays on Aliens, Atlantis, Monsters, and More

Colavito, The Cult of Alien Gods: H.P. Lovecraft And Extraterrestrial Pop Culture

Pauwels and Bergier, The Morning of the Magicians: Secret Societies, Conspiracies, and Vanished Civilizations

Gulyas, Extraterrestrials and the American Zeitgeist: Alien Contact Tales Since the 1950s

Peters, UFOs: God’s Chariots: Spirituality, Ancient Aliens, and Religious Yearnings in the Age of Extraterrestrials

Keel, Operation Trojan Horse: The Classic Breakthrough Study of UFOs

Alnor, Ufo’s in the New Age: Extraterrestrial Messages and the Truth of Scripture

Bullard, The Myth and Mystery of UFOs

Lewis (ed), UFOs And Popular Culture: An Encyclopedia Of Contemporary Myth

Denzler, The Lure of the Edge: Scientific Passions, Religious Beliefs, and the Pursuit of UFOs

Lieb, Children of Ezekiel: Aliens, UFOs, the Crisis of Race, and the Advent of End Time

Partridge (ed), UFO Religions

Lewis (ed), The Gods Have Landed (SUNY Series in Religious Studies)

Herrick, Scientific Mythologies: How Science and Science Fiction Forge New Religious Beliefs

Consolmagno, Would You Baptize an Extraterrestrial?: . . . and Other Questions from the Astronomers’ In-box at the Vatican Observatory

Colavito, Theosophy On Ancient Astronauts

Dr. Heiser’s website, Sitchin is

Ancient Aliens Debunked:

SETI and the ET Life Debate

Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, Antiquity to 1915: A Source Book

Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900

S. Dick, The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science

S. Dick, Life on Other Worlds: The 20th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

S. Dick, Many Worlds: The New Universe, Extraterrestrial Life, and the Theological Implications

S. Dick, The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology

Heidman, Extraterrestrial Intelligence (Canto original series)

Battaglia (ed), E.T. Culture: Anthropology in Outerspaces

Tumminia (ed), Alien Worlds: Social and Religious Dimensions of Extraterrestrial Contact (Religion and Politics)

Michaud, Contact with Alien Civilizations: Our Hopes and Fears about Encountering Extraterrestrials

Paleobabble, Fringe Archaeology

Feder, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology

Fagan, Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public

Cremo, Forbidden Archeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race

Gordin, The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe

Livingstone, Adam’s Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins (Medicine, Science, and Religion in Historical Context)

Haynes, Noah’s Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery (Religion in America)

Dundes (ed), The Flood Myth

      • The best scholarly book on flood traditions around the world.

Garwood, Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea

Keating, The New Geocentrists

Betz, Jesus, Qumran and the Vatican: Clarifications

      • great little book debunking the idea of a conspiracy between the Vatican and Dead Sea Scrolls scholars

Dungan, Constantine’s Bible: Politics and the Making of the New Testament

      • great book for debunking the myth that Constantine picked the books of the New Testament.

Ben-Dor Benite, The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History

Mellinkoff, The Mark of Cain

Wilensky-Lanford, Paradise Lust: Searching for the Garden of Eden

Godwin, Atlantis and the Cycles of Time: Prophecies, Traditions, and Occult Revelations

Standish, Hollow Earth: The Long and Curious History of Imagining Strange Lands, Fantastical Creatures, Advanced Civilizations, and Marvelous Machines Below the Earth’s Surface

Wauchope, Lost Tribes & Sunken Continents; Myth and Method in the Study of American Indians

Ramaswamy, The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories

Loxton, Abominable Science!: Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids

Mayor, The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times.

Mayor, Fossil Legends of the First Americans